Matsutake (Tricholoma matsutake)Systematics:
- Department: Basidiomycota (Basidiomycetes)
- Subdivision: Agaricomycotina (Agaricomycetes)
- Class: Agaricomycetes (Agaricomycetes)
- Subclass: Agaricomycetidae (Agaricomycetes)
- Order: Agaricales (Agaric or Lamellar)
- Family: Tricholomataceae (Tricholomaceae or Ordinary)
- Genus: Tricholoma (Tricholoma or Ryadovka)
- Species: Tricholoma matsutake (Matsutake)
The main scientific synonyms are:
The row is spotty;
- Tricholoma nauseosum ;
- Armillaria nauseosa;
- Armillaria matsutake.
Matsutake (Tricholoma matsutake) - a mushroom belonging to the family of ordinary, genus Tricholoma.
External description of the mushroom
Matsutake (Tricholoma matsutake) has a fruiting body with a cap and a leg. Its pulp is white in color, characterized by a pleasant spicy aroma similar to the smell of cinnamon. The cap is brown in color, and in ripe and overripe mushrooms, its surface cracks and white mushroom pulp is visible through these cracks. In its diameter, the cap of this mushroom is quite large, has a rounded-convex shape, a large tubercle is clearly visible on it. The surface of the cap is dry, initially off-white or brownish, smooth. Later, fibrous-type scales appear on it. The edges of the mushroom cap are slightly turned up; fibers and residual veil are often visible on them.
The hymenophore of the fruiting body is represented by the lamellar type. The plates are characterized by a cream or white color, which changes to brown with strong pressure on them or damage. The mushroom pulp is very thick and dense, exudes a pear-cinnamon aroma, the taste is soft, leaves a bitter aftertaste.
The mushroom leg is quite thick and dense, its length can be from 9 to 25 cm, and its thickness is 1.5-3 cm. Towards the base it expands in the form of a club. Sometimes, on the contrary, it can narrow. It is characterized by an off-white color and an unevenly spaced brown fibrous ring. Above it, a mealy bloom is noticeable, and the lower part of the mushroom leg is covered with nut-brown fibrous scales.
The leg is characterized by a dark brown color and long length. It is very difficult to get it out of the ground.
Habitat and period of fruiting
Matsutake mushroom, the name of which is translated from Japanese as a pine mushroom, grows mainly in Asia, China and Japan, North America and Northern Europe. It grows near the foot of trees, often hiding under fallen leaves. A characteristic feature of the matsutake mushroom is its symbiosis with the roots of powerful trees growing in certain areas. For example, in North America, the mushroom is symbiotic with pine or fir, and in Japan - with red pine. It prefers to grow on infertile and dry soil, forms ring-type colonies. Interestingly, as this type of mushroom matures, the soil under the mycelium turns white for some reason. If suddenly the soil fertility rises, this environment becomes unsuitable for further growth of Matsutake (Tricholoma matsutake). This usually happens whenif the number of falling branches and old leaves increases.
Fruiting matsutake begins in September and continues until October. On the territory of the Russian Federation, this type of fungus is common in the Southern Urals, the Urals, the Far East and Primorye, Eastern and Southern Siberia.
Matsutake (Tricholoma matsutake) is a mycorrhizal forming agent of oak and pine, found in oak-pine and just pine forests. Fruiting bodies of the fungus are found only in groups.
Matsutake mushroom (Tricholoma matsutake) is edible, and you can use it in any form, both raw and boiled, stewed or fried. The mushroom is characterized by high taste, sometimes it is pickled or salted, but more often it is eaten fresh. Can be dried. The pulp of the fruiting body is elastic, and the taste is specific, like the aroma (matsutake smells like resin). It is highly appreciated by gourmets. Matsutake can be dried.
Similar species, distinctive features from them
In 1999, scientists from Sweden, Danell and Bergius, conducted a study that made it possible to accurately determine that the Swedish mushroom Tricholoma nauseosum, previously considered just a similar species to the Japanese matsutake, is in fact the same species of mushroom. The official results of the comparative DNA allowed a significant increase in the number of exports of this type of mushroom from Scandinavia to Japan. And the main reason for such a demand for the product was its delicious taste and pleasant mushroom aroma.