FAQ / Terms of the mushroom world

Agaricoid fungi - A combined non- taxonomic group of basidiomycetes, which is characterized by the presence of fleshy, relatively rapidly developing and short-lived (decaying) fruit bodies. The typical fruiting body of an agaricoid fungus consists of a cap and a leg (sometimes reduced) and has a lamellar or tubular hymenophore.

Angiocarpous fruiting body - The fruiting body is completely closed until the spores are fully ripe, sometimes partial destruction is required to release the spores.

Lateral leg - a leg located on the edge of the cap in mushrooms growing on vertical substrates.

Club-shaped fruiting body - the fruiting body of some aphyllophoric fungi, shaped like a club.

"Witch's rings" (or "circles") - the arrangement of fruiting bodies (carpophores) of cap mushrooms in fairly regular circles (rings) along the periphery of the mycelium growing in the soil from its original source - basidiospores, sclerotia or other modification of the mycelium. Sometimes they reach 600 m in diameter. They got their name among the people, who considered such an overgrowth of mushrooms to be the result of a manifestation of supernatural power.

Funnel-shaped cap - a cap depressed like a funnel.

Hallucinogenic mushrooms are mushrooms that cause hallucinations when eaten. The hallucinogenic properties of some mushrooms were known to the Mayan priests of ancient Guatemala and Mexico, who used them in religious ceremonies. From G., for example, from species of the genus Psilocybe, substances psilocin, psilocybin, which have a psychotropic effect, have been isolated. These substances have found application in psychotherapy in recent years.

Geophilic fungus is a fungus that forms fruiting bodies in the soil.

Hygrophilousness - the ability of a mushroom cap to change its appearance depending on humidity.

Hymenium is a fruiting layer in fungi, consisting of spore-forming cells (bags, basidia or conidiophores).

A hymenophore is a surface that carries hymenium in the fruiting bodies of higher fungi. It can be lamellar, tubular, prickly, smooth, etc.

Hypha is a microscopically thin branching thread, the totality of which makes up the mycelium (mycelium) of the fungus.

The mycelium is the vegetative body of fungi, consisting of branched thinnest filaments, or hyphae, penetrating the substrate.

Hyphae are thin branching filaments, the aggregate of which makes up the mycelium (mycelium).

A ring on a leg is a ring-shaped filmy formation arising from a private veil after it is torn off the edge of the cap.

Mycology is the science of mushrooms.

Mycorrhiza is a symbiosis of the roots of higher plants and the mycelium of the fungus. Distinguish between ectotrophic mycorrhiza, which penetrates relatively shallowly into the roots of the plant, and endotrophic (interstitial).

Mycelium is a vegetative body of fungi, a system of thin branching filaments (hyphae).

The milky juice of mushrooms is a milk-like transparent liquid contained in the fruit bodies of all types of lactarius (species of the genus Lactarius), and occasionally in the fruit bodies of some other genera of higher fungi, for example, some mycens. (species of the genus Mycena) and resulting from injury of the fruiting body.

Creeping plate - a plate descending on a leg.

A common veil (velum universale) is a mycelial film that forms in cap mushrooms, at the beginning of the development of carpophorus, covering the entire mushroom. On mature carpophorus, it is most often preserved in the form of a volva (vagina) at the base of the leg and flocculent deposits on the surface of the cap.

Cobweb bedspread is a private bedspread made up of fine threads that look like spider webs.

Filmy private bedspread - a bedspread in the form of a film.

Fruiting bodies are the part of the fungus that performs the function of sporulation; in most edible mushrooms it looks like a cap on a stem, in caps, in tubes or on plates, spores are located.

The plates are the basis of the hymenophore, on which basidia with spores and cystids are located.

Pillow cap - convex, thick, fleshy cap.

An adherent volva is a volva that is adhered to the bottom of the leg.

The translucent striped edge of the cap is the edge of the cap with a very thin pulp through which the plates are translucent.

Spreading plate - a plate that spreads when the spores mature.

The open hat is an open, almost horizontal head.

Free volva is a saccular volva, to the inner side of the base of which the stem of the fruiting body is attached with its tip.

A free plate is a plate that is not attached to the leg and does not even reach it.

Mucous cap - a cap covered with mucus that becomes shiny when dry.

Saprophytes are fungi that feed on dead organic material.

Symbionts are fungi that form mycorrhiza with the roots of living plants.

Solid leg - a leg that has neither a cavity nor a narrow ring inside.

Spore is a general term for the reproductive structures of fungi. microscopic formations that serve for the reproduction of fungi and preservation in adverse conditions.

Spore powder - spores in the mass, forming a powder.

Thermophilic fungi are a group of fungi that can develop at elevated temperatures and cause self-heating of organic materials (grain, hay, manure, peat, etc.).

Conditionally edible mushrooms are species that become edible only after preliminary processing, without which they are poisonous.

Central leg - a leg located in the middle of the cap.

Private veil - (velum partiale) - a filmy or cobweb veil that closes the plates or tubes in young mushrooms, attached to the edge of the cap and stem, as the fruiting body grows, usually tearing off the edge of the cap and remaining in the form of a ring on the stem, less often tearing off from the leg and remaining in the form of scraps on the edge of the cap.

Scaly stalk - A stalk covered with scales.

Scaly cap - a cap covered with scales, which are usually formed as a result of the rupture of the skin of the cap during its growth.

Spherical fruit body - a fruit body that has the shape of a ball.