If we evaluate mushrooms from the point of view of suitability for food, then they are all divided into two groups: suitable and unsuitable for consumption. Each of these groups, in turn, includes two subspecies, depending on the degree of "edibility" of those mushrooms that are included in it. Suitable mushrooms can be edible or conditionally edible, and unusable mushrooms can be inedible or poisonous. It should be remembered that there may be discrepancies in the classification. For example, on the territory of Russia, real milk mushroom is considered a conditionally edible mushroom, but in western Europe it belongs to the category of inedible mushrooms. It also happens vice versa. Oyster mushrooms, a variegated umbrella or dung beetles, our people do not consider mushrooms, Europeans collect them with pleasure and even refer to delicacies. In general, a lot depends on culture and traditions. Let's consider each category of mushrooms in more detail.
Edible mushrooms are those that contain absolutely no harmful or unpleasant tasting substances. These mushrooms have a characteristic "mushroom" aroma and are edible even raw.
Conditionally edible mushrooms are characterized by not the most pleasant smell and contain harmful or bitter substances. They can be eaten only after preliminary processing (for example, boiled or soaked), as well as in dried or salted form. Each type of mushroom has its own proven processing technology. For example, bitter russula or morels require boiling for 3-5 minutes. Black milk mushrooms, valui or volushki need to be cooked a little longer - 10-15 minutes. These mushrooms are also well suited for salting, only they must be kept for two days in salt water before that. But the lines are boiled twice: first for 5-10 minutes, then the water is changed and left on the stove for another 15-20 minutes. And even such a careful processing does not guarantee one hundred percent harmlessness of the lines.
Inedible include those representatives of the mushroom kingdom that have a very unpleasant taste and smell, and contain harmful substances. Such mushrooms cannot be turned into edible by any processing. Therefore, they are not prepared as an independent dish, but only sometimes used as a seasoning.
And finally, poisonous mushrooms. As the name implies, these mushrooms contain toxic substances that pose a danger to health and even human life. Depending on how exactly poisonous mushrooms act on the body, they are divided into three types. The first group is mushrooms with the so-called local action. These include a false raincoat, some bitter russula, red champignon, tiger ryadovka and spring honey agarics (undercooked). Such mushrooms strike the digestive system within 15-60 minutes after ingestion. Symptoms last from two days to a week, depending on the individual characteristics of the organism. Fatalities are rare, but not excluded, especially in people with weak immunity.
The second group includes mushrooms that affect the central nervous system, causing various disorders in it (up to hallucinations and fainting). Severe digestive upset may also occur. The first symptoms usually appear in the interval from half an hour to two hours. Mushrooms of the second group include russula emetic, gebeloma, entoloma, some ryadovki and fibrils, as well as fly agarics, widely known to all.
The third group of poisonous mushrooms is the most dangerous and insidious. They begin their destructive plasmotoxic effect on the body immediately after they are eaten. But for a day or two, there are no alarms. A person may not even suspect that he has poisoned, and the toxins of the fungi are already killing liver cells and (sometimes) kidneys. Approximately a third of these poisonings result in death. The third group of mushrooms includes spring fly agaric and smelly fly agaric, blood-red spider web, pale toadstool, stitches and almost all lobules.