Row earthy gray (Tricholoma terreum)Systematics:
- Department: Basidiomycota (Basidiomycetes)
- Subdivision: Agaricomycotina (Agaricomycetes)
- Class: Agaricomycetes (Agaricomycetes)
- Subclass: Agaricomycetidae (Agaricomycetes)
- Order: Agaricales (Agaric or Lamellar)
- Family: Tricholomataceae (Tricholomaceae or Ordinary)
- Genus: Tricholoma (Tricholoma or Ryadovka)
- Species: Tricholoma terreum (Row earthy-gray)
- Other names for the mushroom:
- Ground row
- Ground row
- Agaricus terreus
- Agaricus pullus
- Tricholoma bisporigerum
Hat : 3-7 (up to 9) centimeters in diameter. In youth it is conical, broadly conical or bell-shaped, with a sharp conical tubercle and a turned edge. With age, it is convex-spread, flat-spread, with a noticeable tubercle in the center (unfortunately, this macro feature is not present in all specimens). Ash gray, grayish, mouse gray to dark gray, brownish gray. Fibrous-scaly, silky to the touch, with age, the fibers-scales diverge somewhat and white, whitish flesh shines through between them. The edge of an adult fungus may crack.
Plates : adherent toothed, frequent, wide, white, whitish, grayish with age, sometimes with an uneven edge. May (optional) acquire a yellowish tint with age).
Cover : present in very young mushrooms. Grayish, gray, thin, cobweb, quickly disappearing.
Leg : 3-8 (10) centimeters long and up to 1.5-2 cm thick. White, fibrous, at the cap with a slight powdery coating. Sometimes you can see the "annular zone" - the remains of the bedspread. Smooth, slightly thickened towards the base, rather fragile.
Spore powder : white.
Spores : 5-7 x 3.5-5 microns, colorless, smooth, broadly ellipsoid.
Flesh : thin-fleshy cap, brittle leg. The flesh is thin, whitish, darker, grayish under the skin of the cap. Does not change color when damaged.
Smell: pleasant, soft, floury.
Taste : soft, pleasant.
It grows on soil and litter in pine, spruce and mixed (with pine or spruce) forests, plantings, in old parks. Frequently bears fruit in large groups.
Season and distribution
Late mushroom. Distributed throughout the temperate zone. Fruiting from October until severe frosts. In the southern regions, in particular, in the Crimea, in warm winters - until January, and even in February-March. In eastern Crimea, in some years - in May.
The situation is controversial. Until recently, Earthy Ryadovka was considered a good edible mushroom. "Myshata" in Crimea is one of the most widespread and most popular mushrooms collected, one might say, "breadwinner". They are dried, pickled, salted, and cooked fresh.
However, in recent years, a number of studies have been carried out that have shown that the use of earthy-gray ryadovka can cause rhabdomyolysis (myoglobinuria) - a syndrome that is quite difficult in diagnosis and treatment, which is an extreme degree of myopathy and is characterized by the destruction of muscle tissue cells, a sharp increase in the level of creatine kinase and myoglobin , myoglobinuria, the development of acute renal failure.
A group of Chinese scientists were able to induce rhabdomyolysis in mice during experiments with highly dosed extracts from this mushroom. The publication of the results of this study in 2014 called into question the edibility of the earthy row. Some sources of information immediately began to consider the mushroom dangerous and poisonous. However, the alleged toxicity was refuted by the toxicologist of the German Mycology Society, Professor Sigmar Berndt. Professor Berndt calculated that people weighing about 70 kg, each would need to eat about 46 kg of fresh mushrooms, so that on average every second of them could feel some kind of damage to health due to the substances contained in the mushroom.
Quote from Wikipedia
Therefore, we carefully classify the mushroom as conditionally edible: edible, provided that you do not eat more than 46 kg of fresh mushrooms in a short period and provided that you do not have a predisposition to rhabdomyolysis and kidney disease.
Such popularity among the Crimean people is probably connected not so much with the high nutritional qualities of "mice" (the mushroom, according to the old classification, not the first category, but the fourth), but with the fact that "mice" is the most common mushroom there.
In Bulgaria, it is considered very mediocre, in Belarus it is rare and usually not harvested, in Russia it does not have such a resource value, although it is widespread everywhere.
Row gray (Tricholoma portentosum) - fleshy, in wet weather with an oily cap.
Silver row (Tricholoma scalpturatum) - slightly lighter and smaller, but these signs overlap, especially considering the growth in the same places.
Row sad (Tricholoma triste) - differs in a more pubescent hat.
Tiger row (Tricholoma pardinum) - poisonous - much fleshy, more massive.