Fly agaric (Amanita muscaria)Systematics:
- Department: Basidiomycota (Basidiomycetes)
- Subdivision: Agaricomycotina (Agaricomycetes)
- Class: Agaricomycetes (Agaricomycetes)
- Subclass: Agaricomycetidae (Agaricomycetes)
- Order: Agaricales (Agaric or Lamellar)
- Family: Amanitaceae (Amanitaceae)
- Genus: Amanita (Amanita)
- Species: Amanita muscaria (Amanita muscaria)
Amanita muscaria (Latin Amanita muscaria ) is a poisonous psychoactive mushroom of the genus Amanita, or Amanita (Latin Amanita) of the order of agaric (Latin Agaricales), refers to basidiomycetes.
In many European languages the name "fly agaric" comes from the ancient way of its use - as a remedy against flies, the Latin specific epithet also comes from the word "fly" (Latin musca). In Slavic languages, the word "mushroom" became the name of the genus Amanita.
Amanita muscaria grows in coniferous, deciduous and mixed forests, especially in birch forests. It occurs frequently and abundantly singly and in large groups from June to autumn frosts.
The cap is up to 20 cm in ∅, at first spherical , then flat-convex , bright red, orange-red, the surface is dotted with white or weak yellow numerous warts. Skin color can be of various shades from orange-red to bright red, lightens with age. In young mushrooms, flakes on the cap are rarely absent, in old ones they can be washed off by rain. The plates sometimes acquire a light yellow tint.
The pulp is white , yellowish under the skin, soft, odorless.
The plates are frequent, free, white, yellowing in old mushrooms.
Spore powder is white. Spores are ellipsoidal, smooth.
Leg up to 20 cm long, 2.5—3.5 cm ∅, cylindrical, tuber-like at the base, first dense, then hollow, white, naked, with a white or yellowish ring. Tuberous base of the leg fused with the saccular sheath. The base of the stem is covered with white warts in several rows. The ring is white.
The mushroom is poisonous. Symptoms of poisoning appear within 20 minutes and up to 2 hours after ingestion. Contains a significant amount of muscarine and other alkaloids.
May be confused with the golden red russula (Russula aurata).
Amanita muscaria was used as an intoxicant and entheogen in Siberia and had religious significance in the local culture.