Hard boletus (Leccinum duriusculum)Systematics:
- Department: Basidiomycota (Basidiomycetes)
- Subdivision: Agaricomycotina (Agaricomycetes)
- Class: Agaricomycetes (Agaricomycetes)
- Subclass: Agaricomycetidae (Agaricomycetes)
- Order: Boletales
- Family: Boletaceae
- Genus: Leccinum (Obabok)
- Species: Leccinum duriusculum (Boletus boletus)
- Other names for the mushroom:
- Brown birch
- Harsh butt
- Poplar birch
- Hardy butt
- The birch is hardy ;
- Poplar birch ;
- Harsh obobok ;
- Hardy butt ;
- Boletus duriusculus ;
- Leccinum nigellum .
The fruiting body of the hardish boletus consists of a leg and a cap. The flesh of the mushroom is white, very hard, but if you make a cut on the cap, it becomes reddish. If the base of the leg is damaged, the pulp becomes bluish, and after a while it acquires a gray-black tint. The aroma of the flesh of the harsh boletus is weak, there is a mushroom smell, and it tastes pleasant.
The diameter of the cap varies within 6-15 cm. The shape of young mushrooms of the harsh boletus is convex and hemispherical, and in mature fruiting bodies it becomes cushion-shaped. On the skin of the fungus, there is initially a small edge, which, as it matures, completely disappears and the fungus remains naked. At high air humidity, the surface of the cap becomes mucous, with hanging edges. The color of the cap can be grayish-brown, gray-brown, ocher-brown, gray-brown.
The fungus hymenophore is tubular. The tubules are 10 to 25 mm long, initially white, gradually turning creamy yellow, and when pressed, change color to grayish brown or olive brown. The constituent components of the hymenophore are spores characterized by an ellipsoid-fusiform or ellipsoidal shape. The color of the spore powder varies from ocher-brownish to light ocher. The spore sizes are 14.5-16 - 4.5-6 microns.
The length of the mushroom leg varies between 40-160 mm, and its diameter is 10-35 mm. In shape, it is fusiform or cylindrical; at the base it can sometimes be pointed. The upper part of the mushroom leg is characterized by a whitish color, and bluish spots are often noticeable at the base. Below, the color of the leg is brownish, and its entire surface is covered with brown scales.
Season and habitat of the fungus
The harsh boletus grows in mixed and deciduous forests, right on the soil. It has the ability to form mycorrhiza with poplars and aspens. You can meet this mushroom both in groups and in single growth. The harsh boletus prefers to grow on calcareous soils. Rarely, but still you can find this type of birch on loam and sandy soils. Fruiting of the mushroom occurs from mid-July to the end of October (sometimes the fruiting bodies of the hardish boletus can be found in mid-November). In the past few years, more and more information has appeared that the harsh mushroom is spreading more widely, it is found more and more often and in large quantities.
Harsh boletus is an edible mushroom, in which, in comparison with other types of boletus, the flesh is much denser. Worms very rarely start in it, and it is recommended to use the harsh boletus in dried or fresh form. It is used to prepare various delicious dishes.
Similar types and differences from them
The described species is similar to many other species of boletus. However, the harsh boletus has no similarities with poisonous or inedible mushrooms.