Inverted Talker (Paralepista flaccida)Systematics:
- Department: Basidiomycota (Basidiomycetes)
- Subdivision: Agaricomycotina (Agaricomycetes)
- Class: Agaricomycetes (Agaricomycetes)
- Subclass: Agaricomycetidae (Agaricomycetes)
- Order: Agaricales (Agaric or Lamellar)
- Family: Tricholomataceae (Tricholomaceae or Ordinary)
- Genus: Paralepista (Paralepista)
- Species: Paralepista flaccida (inverted talker)
- Other names for the mushroom:
- Red-brown talker
- Red-brown talker
- Clitocybe flaccida
- Omphalia flaccida
- Lepista flaccida
- Clitocybe infundibuliformis sensu auct.
- Clitocybe inversa
- Omphalia inversa
- Lepista inversa
- Clitocybe gilva var. guttatomarmorata
- Clitocybe gilva var. tianschanica
Hat with a diameter of 3-11 cm (sometimes up to 14 cm); initially convex with edges tucked inward; with age, it straightens out to a flat or even takes the form of a shallow funnel or bowl; its surface is dry, almost smooth, matte, orange-brown or brick-colored; hygrophane (turns pale when dry). The edge of the cap is often wavy, with pronounced depressions such as a jug nose, which distinguishes this species from the similar funnel-shaped talker (Clitocybe gibba). There is evidence that sometimes in inverted talkers, which appear already very late in autumn, the hat remains convex, without forming the usual depression in the center.
The plates are descending, narrow, rather frequent, at first almost white, later pinkish-beige or pale orange, with age they become dark orange or pink-brown.
Leg 3-10 cm in height and up to 1.5 cm in diameter, more or less cylindrical, dry, finely pubescent; painted to match the cap, only slightly lighter; pubescent of whitish mycelium at the base.
The pulp is thin (in the cap), whitish, with a sweetish odor, which is sometimes compared to the smell of frozen orange juice or bergamot, without a pronounced taste.
Whitish to off-white spore print .
Spores 4-5 x 3.5-4 μm, from almost spherical to broadly elliptical, finely warty, non-amyloid. Cystyds are absent. Buckled hyphae.
KOH paints the surface of the cap yellow.
Ecology and distribution
Saprophyte, grows scattered or in close groups on a coniferous litter, often at the foot of anthills, sometimes on wet sawdust and wood chips. More often found in coniferous and mixed forests, sometimes it grows on humus-rich soils, where it forms spectacular "witch rings". A common species in the Northern Hemisphere, common in North America, mainland Europe and Great Britain. The period of active growth is autumn, until the onset of cold weather, however, in some places it can shift to winter (for example, the coast of California), or continue - in mild climates - until January (for example, in Great Britain and Ireland).
What can be confused with an inverted talker
The funnel-shaped talker (Clitocybe gibba) found in the same biotopes is distinguished by a paler coloration, the absence of a wavy edge, and significantly larger, elongated white spores. In addition, it has a much thicker flesh in the cap.
Brown-yellow talker (Paralepista gilva) has a lighter, creamy yellow or brownish-yellow hue, and round watery spots (in youth) or dark rusty-brown spots (in more mature specimens) are visible on the cap.
The much larger Lepista multiformis is found in open grassy areas (meadows, roadsides, parks and lawns), and has been recorded in Europe (rather rare).
According to some sources, the inverted talker is not poisonous, but its nutritional quality leaves much to be desired, and it makes little sense to collect it.
According to others, it is poisonous (contains muscarinic toxins).
Video about the mushroom Govorushka inverted: