Autumn line (Gyromitra infula)Systematics:
- Department: Ascomycota (Ascomycetes)
- Subdivision: Pezizomycotina (Pesizomycotins)
- Class: Pezizomycetes (Pecicomycetes)
- Subclass: Pezizomycetidae (Pecicomycetes)
- Order: Pezizales
- Family: Discinaceae
- Genus: Gyromitra (line)
- View: Gyromitra infula (Autumn line)
- Other names for the mushroom:
- Autumn lobster
- Lobules infuloid
- Helvella infuloid
- Horned line
The autumn line is directly related to the genus Lobules (or Helwell). It is considered the most common of all this kind of lobules (or Helwell). And the pseudonym "autumn" this mushroom got because of its peculiarity to grow in late summer - early autumn, in contrast to their fellow tribesmen, lines of "spring" (line ordinary, line giant), which grow in early spring. And he still has a difference from them - the autumn line contains a much larger amount of poisons and toxins.
The autumn line refers to marsupial mushrooms.
Hat : usually up to 10 cm wide, folded, brown, with age becomes brownish-blackish, with a velvety surface. The shape of the cap is horn-saddle-shaped (more often found in the form of three fused horns), the edges of the cap fuse with the leg. The hat is folded in autumn, of irregular and incomprehensible shape. The color of the cap is from light brown in young mushrooms to brown-black in adults, with a velvety surface.
Leg : 3-10 cm long, up to 1.5 cm wide, hollow, often laterally flattened, color can vary from whitish to brownish-grayish.
Its leg is cylindrical, thickened downwards and hollow inside, wax-white-gray in color.
Flesh : fragile, cartilaginous, thin, whitish, wax-like, without a special smell, very similar to the flesh of related species, for example, an ordinary line that grows in early spring.
Habitat : The autumn line is singly found from July, but active growth begins from the end of August. Often found in small groups of 4-7 specimens in coniferous and deciduous forests on the soil, as well as on the remains of decaying wood.
The autumn line likes to grow either in coniferous or deciduous forests, sometimes singly, sometimes in small families, and preferably on decaying wood or nearby. It can be found throughout the temperate zone of Europe and Russia. The main fruiting period for him falls on the end of July and lasts until the end of September.
Edible : Although the autumn line is found possible to eat, it is worth noting that, like an ordinary line in its raw form, it is deadly poisonous. Incorrectly cooked, it can cause very serious poisoning. You shouldn't eat it often, as the toxins it contains have cumulative properties and can accumulate in the body.
Conditionally edible mushroom, 4th category, is used for food after boiling (15-20 minutes, the water is drained) or drying. Deadly poisonous when raw .
Studies conducted by mycologists from different countries have shown that these lines contain toxic substances of a protein composition - gyrometrin and methylhydrazine, which, once in the human body, can cause poisoning and even death. It depends on the age of the mushroom. The fact is that the lines grow and ripen very slowly, so that both young mushrooms and overripe mushrooms that have reached the age of several weeks can get into the same basket at the same time. In them, apparently, the content of toxic substances is higher. The poison of gyrometrin does not dissolve in hot water; it can only be removed by drying the mushrooms for 3-4 weeks. Remember, the stitches can only be eaten after drying .
The line is autumnal, some primary sources even consider it a deadly poisonous mushroom. But this is not, at all, and there have been no cases of fatal poisoning with autumn lines so far. And the degree of poisoning by them, as well as by all mushrooms of this family, strongly depends on the amount and frequency of their use. Therefore, it is extremely undesirable to use the autumn line in food, otherwise you can get serious food poisoning with very, very sad consequences. It is because of this that the autumn line is attributed to inedible mushrooms. Science knows that the toxicity of the lines is largely due to the temperature and climatic parameters and, directly, depends on the places of their growth. And, the warmer the climatic conditions, the more poisonous these mushrooms will become. That is why, in the countries of Western and Eastern Europe,with their warm climate, absolutely all lines refer to poisonous mushrooms, and in Russia, with its much colder climate, only autumn lines are considered inedible, which, unlike the lines of "spring" (ordinary and giant), growing early in spring, begin their active development and maturation after a period of warm summer, on warm soil and, therefore, they manage to collect in themselves a sufficiently large amount of dangerous, poisonous substances so that they can be considered unfit for human consumption.on warm soil and, therefore, manage to collect in themselves a sufficiently large amount of dangerous, poisonous substances so that they can be considered unfit for human consumption.on warm soil and, therefore, manage to collect in themselves a sufficiently large amount of dangerous, poisonous substances so that they can be considered unfit for human consumption.