Butter dish (Suillus luteus)Systematics:
- Department: Basidiomycota (Basidiomycetes)
- Subdivision: Agaricomycotina (Agaricomycetes)
- Class: Agaricomycetes (Agaricomycetes)
- Subclass: Agaricomycetidae (Agaricomycetes)
- Order: Boletales
- Family: Suillaceae (Oily)
- Genus: Suillus (Oily)
- Species: Suillus luteus (Butter dish)
- Other names for the mushroom:
- Ordinary butter dish
- Butter dish yellow
- Late butter dish
- Autumn butter dish
Real butter dish
Ordinary butter dish
Butter dish yellow
Late butter dish
Autumn butter dish
- Boletus luteus
- Boletopsis lutea
Butter dish (Suillus luteus) is the scientific name of the most common type of butter. The word luteus in the scientific name of the mushroom means "yellow".
Oily can grow on sandy soil from late May to November in coniferous forests. Fruiting bodies appear singly or most often in large groups.
The cap of the present Oily (Suillus luteus) reaches a diameter of up to 10 cm, convex, later almost flat with a tubercle in the middle, sometimes with curved edges, chocolate-brownish, sometimes with a purple tint. The skin is radially fibrous, very slimy and easily separated from the pulp. The tubules are pale yellow at first, later dark yellow, adherent to the peduncle, 6-14 mm long. The pores are small, in young mushrooms pale yellow, later bright yellow, brownish yellow. Tubular layer adhered to the pedicle, yellow, pores are at first whitish or pale yellow, then yellow or dark yellow, small, rounded.
Cylindrical, solid, 35-110 mm high and 10-25 mm thick, lemon yellow at the top, brownish and longitudinally fibrous at the bottom. A white filmy blanket, which first connects the leg to the edge of the cap, leaves pieces on the leg in the form of a black-brown or purple ring. Above the ring, the leg is mealy.
The cap is soft, juicy, slightly fibrous at the stem, whitish at first, later lemon-yellow, rusty-brownish at the base of the stem.
7-10 x 3-3.5 µm, ellipsoid-fusiform, smooth, pale yellow.
The red butter dish (Suillus fluryi) is very similar to the real butter dish, which is distinguished by the absence of a ring on the leg. It has no resemblance to poisonous mushrooms.
Real butter dish - Edible, tasty mushroom of the second category, in terms of taste it is very close to porcini mushrooms. It is better to remove the skin from the cap before use. It is consumed dried, fresh, pickled and salted. Delicious and easily digestible mushroom. Suitable for making soups, sauces and side dishes for meat dishes. To be pickled.
The optimum average daily temperature for fruiting the oiler is + 15 ... + 18 ° C, but the ordinary oiler does not react strongly to temperature fluctuations. Fruiting bodies of boletus usually appear 2-3 days after rain, and strong dew also stimulates fruiting. In mountainous areas, boletus can grow massively around stones, this is due to condensation of moisture on the surface of the stone. Fruiting ceases at a temperature of -5 ° C on the surface of the soil, and after freezing of the upper layer by 2-3 cm, it does not resume. In the summer period (at the beginning of the season) boletus is often damaged by insect larvae, sometimes the proportion of unsuitable "wormy" boletus reaches 70-80%. In autumn, insect activity decreases sharply.
Buttercup is widespread in the Northern Hemisphere, prefers a moderately cold climate, but it is also found in the subtropics, sometimes it is accidentally introduced by humans into tropical regions, where it forms local populations in artificial pine plantations.
In Russia, boletus is widespread in the European part, in the North Caucasus, in Siberia, in the Far East. Fruiting more often in large groups.
Season June - October, massively from September.
Features of the mushroom:
Boletus edulis (boletus) are ahead of boletus edulis in terms of fat and carbohydrate content. Real butter dish - One of the most common types of edible mushrooms, it takes first place in its yield in coniferous forests.