Matsutake (Tricholoma caligatum)Systematics:
- Department: Basidiomycota (Basidiomycetes)
- Subdivision: Agaricomycotina (Agaricomycetes)
- Class: Agaricomycetes (Agaricomycetes)
- Subclass: Agaricomycetidae (Agaricomycetes)
- Order: Agaricales (Agaric or Lamellar)
- Family: Tricholomataceae (Tricholomaceae or Ordinary)
- Genus: Tricholoma (Tricholoma or Ryadovka)
- Species: Tricholoma caligatum (Matsutake)
- Other names for the mushroom:
- Shod row
- Spotted row
- The row is spotty;
- Matsutake ;
- Pine mushroom;
- Pine horns .
Matsutake (Tricholoma caligatum) is an edible mushroom belonging to the Tricholoma family, the Ryadovok genus.
Matsutake (Tricholoma caligatum) is also known by another name - matsutake. this mushroom bears fruit well, but it is often difficult to find it. The thing is that the fruit bodies of the spotted row are well hidden under a layer of fallen leaves. Due to the difficulty of finding, the cost and value of the fruit bodies of a shod row is prohibitively high.
A characteristic feature of the described fungus is the presence of long and deeply planted legs in the soil, the length of which can reach 7-10 cm. The main task for the mushroom picker, who found the fruit bodies of the spotted row on his way, is to extract the fungus from the soil without damage. Little known mushroom, but good for various types of food.
The diameter of the cap of the spotted rows varies within 5-20 cm. It is characterized by a semicircular shape, thick, fleshy, in ripe fruit bodies it is flat-convex, has a tubercle in the central part. The color of the cap can be brownish chestnut or brownish gray. Its entire surface is covered with small, tightly pressed scales, located on a lighter background. Often on the surface of the fruiting body of the spotted row, remnants of a common veil are noticeable. The edges of the cap of the described mushroom are characterized by a whitish color, unevenness, and waviness.
The length of the leg in spotted rows is 5-12 cm, and their diameter varies within 1.5-2.5 cm. The leg itself is located in the center, has a cylindrical shape and tapers near the base. The color of the leg under the ring can be either mealy or white, and its surface under the ring is densely covered with scales, which have the same color as the scales covering the cap. In this case, the scales on the surface of the leg have pointed areas, notches.
The ring on the stem of the mushroom is well pronounced, covered with a large number of scales on the outside, and completely white on the inside. The pulp of the mushroom has a wonderful fruity aroma and taste, characterized by a white color. The hymenophore in the spotted row is lamellar. The plates in its composition are often located, usually grow to the surface of the fruiting body, and are white. The spore powder in the described type of fungus is also characterized by a white color.
Season and habitat of the fungus
Matsutake grows in coniferous (mainly pine), as well as in mixed (pine-oak) forests. The most active fruiting occurs in the period from September to November (that is, throughout the fall).
The formation of fruit bodies of spotted rows occurs at a depth that is large enough for such plants in the ground. The stem of this mushroom is located deep from the soil surface, and therefore, when harvesting, the mushroom must be dug out. The aroma of the shod ryadovka is very peculiar, similar to the smell of anise. Interestingly, when the fruiting body of the described type of fungus appears on the surface, the soil begins to crack strongly. Such a mushroom is rarely found in solitary form, it grows mainly in large groups.
On the territory of Russia, spotted rowers grow mainly in the eastern regions of the country. You can meet him in the Urals, in the Irkutsk region (Eastern Siberia), in the Khabarovsk Territory and the Amur Region. And in the Primorsky Territory, shod rows are included in the Red Book. Such a mushroom is rarely found in European countries.
Matsutake fruiting occurs mainly in pine and mixed (pine-oak) forests. They have the ability to form mycorrhiza with conifers (mainly pines). Rarely can form mycorrhiza with deciduous tree species, in particular oaks. Spotted rows choose old pine groves for their growth. Around the coniferous tree, these mushrooms form so-called witch circles, gathering in large colonies. It is interesting that the spotted rowers skillfully hide under the fallen leaves of the trees standing near the pines. The described mushroom prefers to grow in dry soil, which is not very fertile. Colony of spotted rowers does not grow in one place for more than 10 years.
Shod rows - mushrooms are picky enough, and therefore yield crops only when certain weather conditions are established. For the yield of shod rows to be good, it is necessary that the daytime temperature does not exceed 26 ºC, and the night temperature does not fall below 15 ºC. Another important condition for the growth of matsutake is more than 100 mm of precipitation during the previous 20 days. If at the end of summer suitable weather conditions are created, then the fruiting of spotted rows can occur as early as August.
Matsutake (Tricholoma caligatum) is an edible mushroom and tastes good. It is especially appreciated in Japan and the countries of the East. This mushroom can be fried, while heat treatment eliminates the unpleasant aftertaste, leaving only a sweetish aftertaste. Matsutake is also good for pickling. Some gourmets point out that this variety has a strong pear aroma. It is interesting that the composition of the described type of ryadovki contains a special antibiotic and some antitumor substances. Their effectiveness has been proven through studies in white mice. In the Ussuriysky reserve, this mushroom is protected, as well as in the reserve "Kedrovaya Lad". The presence of medicinal properties in ryadovka spotted makes this mushroom very valuable for Japan, where it is widely used for food purposes.It can be not only pickled and boiled, but also salted. Pickled and salted spotted rows are very dense and crispy.
In Japan and some other eastern countries, spotted rowers are cultivated. Some gourmets note that this mushroom has a bitter aftertaste, and the taste is mealy or cheesy.