Insufficient pretreatment or improper storage can lead to poisoning with conditionally edible mushrooms. So, in case of poisoning with morels and stitches, nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain appear 5-10 hours after eating mushrooms. In severe cases, the liver, kidneys are affected; convulsions, impaired consciousness may develop; death is possible.
The clinical picture of poisoning with poisonous mushrooms is due to the type of fungal toxin, but always includes severe damage to the gastrointestinal tract. The loss of a large amount of fluid with vomit and feces leads to severe dehydration, loss of electrolytes (potassium, sodium, magnesium, calcium ions) and chlorides. Water-electrolyte disturbances can be accompanied by hypovolemic shock (see Exotoxic shock), lead to the development of acute cardiovascular, hepatic and renal failure.
The most severe poisoning (especially in children) is caused by a pale grebe: for the development of severe poisoning with a fatal outcome, it is enough to eat a small part of the mushroom. The first symptoms of poisoning may appear 10-24 hours after eating the mushroom and are manifested by sudden sharp pains in the abdomen, vomiting, and diarrhea.
The stool is thin, watery, like rice water, sometimes mixed with blood. Cyanosis, tachycardia appear, blood pressure decreases. On days 2-4, jaundice appears, hepatic-renal failure develops, often accompanied by fibrillar muscle twitching, oliguria or anuria. Death can occur due to acute cardiovascular or hepatic renal failure.
Signs of fly agaric poisoning appear after 1-11 / 2; h and are characterized by abdominal pain, indomitable vomiting, diarrhea. Increased salivation, sharp sweating, miosis, bradycardia are noted; agitation, delirium, hallucinations develop (see Poisoning, acute intoxication psychoses (Infectious psychoses)), convulsions (muscarinic intoxication).
The effectiveness of therapy is mainly determined not by the initial severity of the patient's condition, but by how quickly the treatment is started. With a detailed clinical picture of poisoning, especially in the case of toxic damage to the liver and kidneys, even the most modern methods of treatment, used on the 3-5th day and later, are often ineffective. This is largely due to the specific effect of the fungal toxin on the cell structure.
At the first signs of mushroom poisoning (as well as in case of suspicion of poisoning), emergency hospitalization is required, preferably in a hospital where active detoxification measures are available. At the prehospital stage, first aid consists in immediate gastric lavage (gastric lavage) and bowel cleansing (washings containing undigested mushroom residues must be delivered to the hospital).
The stomach is washed through a probe with a solution of sodium bicarbonate, or baking soda (1 tablespoon per 1 liter of water) or a weak (pink) solution of potassium permanganate. A suspension of activated carbon (50-80 g per 100-150 ml of water) or enterodesis (1 teaspoon of powder 3-4 times a day) is injected inside. Use laxatives (25-50 g of magnesium sulfate, dissolved in 1/2-1 glass of water, or 20-30 g of sodium sulfate, dissolved in 1/4-1 / 2 glass of water, 50 ml of castor oil), make cleansing enemas ... After washing the stomach and cleansing the intestines to replenish the loss of fluid and salts, the victims are given salted water (2 teaspoons of table salt per 1 glass of water), which should be drunk chilled, in small sips.
The article was written with the support of the site //dostavka-vody-volgograd.ru/ "Azbuka Vody" - a service for the delivery of drinking water across Volgograd.